(CNN) -- The violent protest came as tensions remained high in the Muslim world, with American embassies and consulates on alert for further backlash over a privately produced video in the United States that mocked the Prophet Mohammed.
The man behind the anti-Islam film
At least 15 policemen were injured and two police vehicles burned when a protest of about 300 Afghans, who were gathered at an outer security perimeter several miles from the embassy, turned into a melee, a senior Afghan police official said on condition of anonymity because of the sensitivity of the situation.
Protesters also clashed with police in Indonesia and in Pakistan.
The violence is the latest fallout from a 14-minute movie trailer posted on YouTube that mocks the Prophet Mohammed as a womanizer, child molester and ruthless killer. Islam categorically forbids any depictions of Mohammed, and blasphemy is an incendiary taboo in the Muslim world.
The man behind anti-Islamic film
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Peaceful protests in Pakistan
The Monday incidents comes seven days after protests first erupted Tuesday in Egypt and Libya, and spread to more than 20 nations with sometimes violent results.
The Libya protest is believed to have been used as a diversion by militants in an attack on the U.S. Consulate in Benghazi that left Ambassador Chris Stevens and three other Americans dead.
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The leader of Lebanon's Hezbollah movement, meanwhile, called for renewed protests Monday over the film.
Speaking on Hezbollah's al-Manar television service Sunday, Hassan Nasrallah said the movie -- excerpts of which have been posted online -- "represents a dangerous turn in the war against Islam and the great prophet, peace be upon him."
"The people who should be accountable, and brought to justice as well as punished and boycotted, are those directly responsible for the film and those who support them and protect them," Nasrallah said. "And it is the United States of America that is at the forefront of those."
President Barack Obama has disavowed the film, saying the United States rejects "the denigration of any religion, including Islam." But he also said "there is no excuse for attacks on our embassies and consulates."
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Notably, not all of the protests have been violent and represent only a small fraction of populations. In Pakistan, for example, about 1,200 protesters Sunday clashed with police armed with batons and a water cannon near the U.S. Embassy in Karachi in a city of nearly 13 million people. One protester was killed, and 45 police officers injured, officials said.
In other key developments:
Taking no chances
While U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta told reporters over the weekend that the worst of the violence appeared to be over, the United States was taking no chances.
Non-essential personnel have been ordered to leave the American diplomatic missions in Sudan, Tunisia and Libya. Consular services also have been suspended until the end of the month in Yemen following a violent protest last week, the State Department said.
On Monday, German, Canadian and British consular services in Khartoum, Sudan, remained closed after protesters attacked a compound housing the German and British consulates in the city.
But there were signs that some diplomatic missions that had been targeted by protests were trying to get back to business.
At the U.S. Embassy in Cairo, the scene of five consecutive days of protests, the mission returned to full staffing Sunday, according to the U.S. State Department.
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Calls for tolerance
Despite the firm condemnation by U.S. government officials, some in the Muslim world -- especially those raised in regimes in which the government must authorize any film production -- cannot accept that a movie like "Innocence of Muslims" can be produced without being sanctioned by Washington, said Council of Foreign Relations scholar Ed Husain.
The movie, "Innocence of Muslims," was privately produced by a man federal officials identified as Nakoula Basseley Nakoula, a California man on probation for bank fraud, and authorities have said they are reviewing whether he violated the terms of his release.
Over the weekend, federal probation authorities brought Nakoula in for questioning as part of the effort to review whether he violated his parole.